The Subterranean Chamber, the Recess and the horizontal passageway.

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.3.1

Please ignore good old Mr. Edgar, he just needed a break in the dusty and harsh environment with poor quality of air. 
The picture is taken from the lowest part of the descending passageway. You can see the connection to the horizontal passageway leading into the Antechamber and the Subterranean Chamber. The width and the height of the horizontal passageway is smaller than the descending passageway, which is easily viewed on the picture. 

Please also observe the roughly cut walls, which made the dimensions of the passages difficult to measure and to draw. For this area I have chosen to use mean values.



Section 5.3.2

Flinders Petrie mentioned:

"The Subterranean chambers and passages are all cut roughly in the rock. The entrance passage has a flat end, square with its axis (within at least 1°), and out of this end a smaller horizontal passage proceeds, leaving a margin of the flat end along the top and two sides. This margin is 4.5 wide at E., 3.2 at W., and 5.4 to 6.0 from E. to W. along the top."
(S5orig-[S37]-P59-L12-16)

My comments to Petrie:
4,5" = 0,22 cubits RM
3,2" = 0,16 cubits RM
5,4" from East to 6,0" West = 0,26 cubits RM from East to 0,29 cubits RM

Let us see the picture again with measures in cubits RM:

The width of the horizontal passageway is not constant all the way to the subterranean chamber. At the entrance the calculated width is:
1,98 cubits RM - 0,22 cubits RM - 0,16 cubits RM = 1,60 cubits.

The original table of Flinders Petrie: 

Source S5orig, Sect. 37, page 59

I have converted the table into cubits RM:


Section 5.3.3

The horizontal passageway :

Comments and calculations to the drawing:

Acc. to section 5.2.4 the southern coordinates for the descending passageway are:
Roof:  2339;2353
Floor: 2349;3373

In the table in section 5.3.2 following is informed:
The distance of the end of the descending passageway on floor level to the entrance of the horizontal passageway : 0,97 cubits RM  ≈ 1 cubit NM (= 10 pixels)
Acc. to section 5.3.2 the roof of the horizontal passageway was lowered 0,3 cubits RM (=3 pixels)
The coordinate of the beginning of the horizontal passageway al roof level is 2339;2353 + 3 = 2339;3356 
The height of the horizontal passageway is 1,72 cubits RM to 1,75 cubits RM acc. to table. (= 17 pixels)   **

The distance of the end of the descending passageway on the floor level to the Recess is 10,57 cubits RM ( = 106 pixels)   **
The distance of the end of the descending passageway on the floor level to the end of the Recess is 14,11 cubits RM ( = 141pixels)  **
The Recess is 14,11 cubits RM - 10,57 cubits RM = 3,54 cubits long in North - South direction ( = 35 pixels)   **
The distance of the end of the descending passageway on the floor level to the entrance of the Subterranean chamber is 16,78 cubits RM ( = 168 pixels)
The coordinate of the entrance to the Subterranean chamber at floor level is 2349-168;3373= 2181;3373  
The coordinate of the entrance to the Subterranean chamber at roof level is 2181;3373-17= 2181;3356    
The distance from  the entrance of the Subterranean chamber to the Recess on the floor level is 16,78 cubits RM - 10,57 cubits RM - 3,54 cubits = 2,67 cubits ( = 27 pixels)
The Apex cut the floor at 2200;3373 and the roof at 2200;3356
The distance from the entrance of the Subterranean chamber to the Apex on the roof level is 1,94 cubits RM ( = 19 pixels)
The distance from the Apex on the roof level to the Recess is 0,73 cubits RM ( = 7 pixels)   **
The Northern coordinate of the Recess at the roof level is 2349-106;3373-17 = 2243;3356
The Southern coordinate of the Recess at the roof level is 2343-35;3356 = 2308;3356
This gives a deviation of 1 pixel in the distance from the Apex to the Recess 2308-2200 = 8 pixels ( = 0,8 cubits ) compared to the measured 0,73 cubit RM

The height of the Recess is not available so I measured and calculated from a handwritten drawing made by Edgar:

antechamberatsub-closerviewjpg
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910  Page 36, part of Plate X

Southern height: 16,78 cubits RM / 69 mm  x  3,5 mm  = 0,85 cubits ( = 9 pixels )
Northern height: 16,78 cubits RM / 69 mm  x  2,0 mm  = 0,49 cubits ( = 5 pixels )
Southern coordinate for the Recess at the roof : 2208;3356-9 = 2208; 3347
Northern coordinate for the Recess at the roof : 2243;3356-5 = 2243; 3351 

  ** Remens:
I am convinced the ancient Egyptians used the unit remens here and there in their buildings. I am not sure when they preferred remens, but I keep an eye on it. Let us calculate some examples based on above measures:

The height of the horizontal passageway is 1,72 cubits RM to 1,75 cubits RM acc. to table = 2,432 remens RM to 2,475 remens RM  ≈ 2,5 remens NM

The distance of the end of the descending passageway on the floor level to the Recess is 10,57 cubits RM  = 14,948 remens RM  ≈ 15 remens NM

The distance of the end of the descending passageway on the floor level to the end of the Recess is 14,11 cubits RM  = 19,955 remens RM  ≈ 20 remens NM

The Recess is 14,11 cubits RM - 10,57 cubits RM = 3,54 cubits long in North - South direction  = 5,006 remens RM  ≈ 5 remens NM

The distance from the Apex on the roof level to the Recess is 0,73 cubits RM  : 1,032 remens RM  ≈ 1 remen NM

In this little short passage we have following nominal measures in remens: 1 ..  2,5 ..  5 ..  15 ..  20.   A coincidence ? Maybe not. 



Section 5.3.4

The Recess is also called an Antechamber. I prefer to call it Recess as it does not look like a chamber.

The picture is taken towards the Northern part of the horizontal passageway and in the distant you can see the lowest part of the descending passageway. An interesting feature by all the passageways is they are squared even they are cut in the rock.  They could have chosen round or oval passageways in the rock, but they have chosen the same pattern as it appears in the masonry.

You can clearly see that the ceiling is very rough. The walls and the floor are relatively well cut.  Another interesting point is that all chambers small as well as large are directed westward. That might be the reason that the entrance and all the passageways are located Eastern of the  East-West mid-plane of the pyramid, so the chambers more or less hit the East-West mid-plane. We will keep in eye on this later on with the top view drawings.

The Recess is very irregular and the measures are according to Petrie in section 5.3.3:

The width at the Northern end: 1,53 cubits RM at roof level. 
The width at the Northern end: 1,59 cubits RM at floor level.
The width at the Southern end: 1,55 cubits RM at roof level.
The width at the Southern end: 1,60 cubits RM at floor level.

(In the drawings I choose 16 pixels)

The height at Eastern wall at the Northern end : 1,72 cubits RM 
The height at Western wall at the Northern end : 1,75 cubits RM

The height at Eastern wall at the Southern end : 1,50 cubits RM 

The height at Western wall at the Southern end is not measured.    


At the Western side there is a granite block, which has no function and might have been placed there by researchers or intruders.    

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


The next picture  is taken towards the Southern part of the horizontal passageway and in the distant you can see the opening to the Subterranean Chamber, where Judah is standing.  Again, you can see the rough ceiling and a large granite block which do not belong to anything.

You can clearly see that the ceiling is very rough.


A common theory is that the workers started here to make the Subterranean Chamber, but gave up and continued southward. 

I am not so sure about this explanation. The reason is there is a natural crack or fissure in the roof and the floor, so they had to cut away certain parts of the rock to stabilize the roof of safety reasons.    

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910



Section 5.3.5

Let us see the Subterranean chamber. First some pictures taken by Edward and his crew in 1910 to get an overview of this complex chamber.

Underneath is a picture taken from the mid of the chamber with the Eastern wall at the right side. You can see the entrance to Horizontal passageway in the Northern wallr. On the Northern wall a graffiti is made by visitors/researchers. Also here you can see the cutting style so it appears like the other chambers build up of stones.

In the bottom of the picture you can see a part of the so-called Pit.

Did they try to make an illusion so it looks like you are in the masonry and not somewhere under the masonry in the rock ?
Imagine how it might have been to cut in the rock in a dusty and inhuman environment. My deepest respect to the ancient Egyptian workers.

thesubchambertowardsnorthjpg

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910




Underneath is a view towards the eastern wall. 

The photo is taken from the trench between the two mounds. A helper is entering from the horizontal passageway on the left side (Northern) and another helper is in the pit and everything looks clean and nice from this view. Edgar is walking toward South.

easternwallinsubjpg

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.3.6

The height varies a lot due to the rubble and an unfinished floor as you can see on the picture below. It is taken toward the North-West corner, North is on the right hand and South on the left.
It was impossible for Petrie to measure the Western wall properly, so he measured the length 4,85 cubits RM away from the Western wall. The measured length is at that point 15,98 cubits RM  ≈ 16 cubits NM, but we do not have the correct measure for the length of the Western wall.

You can see the two mounds and the trench between them. The Pit is in the bottom of the picture.

Remember this chamber has been cut out of the underground. It is amazing the workers so eagerly cut the sharp corners especially at the roof. The longer I study the old picture the more I doubt the chamber is unfinished as many think.
Yes, it looks like they gave up and proceeded somewhere else, if we compare the finish of the chamber with the other chambers and passageways in the complete masonry.

I have a peculiar feeling the mounds, the trench and the pit are made intentionally ! If the rubble was moved away it seems there are steps, where you can sit or stand.

dsc094512jpg

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910



Section 5.3.7

The next picture is taken towards the North - West corner.

Behind the northern mound there is a little ridge of rock. The boy embraced it and looked at an recess in the western wall. The purpose of the ridge and the recess is unknown. The roof of the little recess in the western wall has a light grey area, which could be a shadow or the remains of the smoke from a candle light.


northwestcornerinsubjpg

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910



Section 5.3.8

The next picture is taken from the northern wall towards the pit and the entrance to the southern horizontal passageway.

dsc094542jpg Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.3.9

The same angle, but the rubble is removed from the floor.

The South-East corner of the roof is well made. 

dsc094582jpg

 Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.3.10

We miss measurements in the next sections, however, Petrie did inform about some measurements related to the Subterranean chamber, he wrote:
"The lower - eastern - part of the floor, 140 below the roof, which is comparatively flat, is, nevertheless, very irregular and roughly trenched, quite unfinished. The best worked floor surface is just around the square shaft, 198 below the roof, and about 40 below the main part of the floor, which is 155 below roof on a knob of rock beside the shaft. The square shaft is not parallel to the chamber, but is placed nearly diagonally. Its distances to the walls are, N.W. corner 135 to N. wall; N.E. corner 60 to E. wall; S. E. corner 90 to S. wall. Its sides are N.E. 68 to 75; S. E. 82 1/2; S. W. 70 above, 79 below ( the N. corner being rounded above); N. to S. diagonal 100. The S. E. and sides stop at 67 deep, or 265 below roof, or 1.321 under pavement; leaving a ledge about 20 inches wide, a second or deeper part of the shaft goes downwards, the N. E. sides being continuous with those of the upper part; it is, in fact, a smaller shaft descending out of the N. corner of the larger. The sides of the smaller shaft are, N. E. 57 ? S. E. 53 ? S. W. 60, N. W. 56. The original depth of the smaller shaft I could not see, it was apparently about 40 inches according to Vyse, when Perring sunk his round shaft down of the ancient square shaft. This hole in the dimly-lighted chamber, about 30 feet deep ( with water in it after heavy rains have rushed down the entrance passage), and with a very irregular and wide opening, makes measurement about here somewhat unpleasant."
(S5orig-[S37]-P60-L19-38).

My comments to Petrie:
First some conversions from inches as they appear above.

I have converted the measures in inches to cubits in the above notes of Flinders Petrie and deleted some parts of it to make it a bit more user friendly:

 

"The lower - eastern - part of the floor, 6,79 cubits RM below the roof,

The best worked floor surface is just around the square shaft, 9,60 cubits RM below the roof, and about 1,94 cubits RM below the main part of the floor, which is 7,52 cubits RM below roof on a knob of rock beside the shaft.

The square shaft is not parallel to the chamber, but is placed nearly diagonally.

Its distances to the walls are:

N.W. corner 6,55 cubits RM to N. wall

N.E. corner 2,91 cubits RM to E. wall

S. E. corner 4,36 cubits RM to S. wall.

 

Its sides are:

N.E. 3,30 cubits RM to 3,64 cubits RM

S. E. 4,00 cubits RM

S. W. 3,39 cubits RM above, 3,83 cubits RM below

N. to S. diagonal 4,85 cubits RM.

The S. E. and sides stop at 3,25 cubits RM deep, or 12,85 cubits RM below roof, or 64,06 cubits RM under pavement

leaving a ledge about 0,97 cubits RM inches wide, a second or deeper part of the shaft goes downwards,

The sides of the smaller shaft are:

N. E. 2,76 cubits RM ?

S. E. 2,57 cubits RM ?

S. W. 2,91 cubits RM,

N. W. 2,72 cubits RM.

 

The original depth of the smaller shaft I could not see, it was apparently about 1,94 cubits RM inches according to Vyse, when Perring sunk his round shaft down of the ancient square shaft. This hole in the dimly-lighted chamber, about 17,46 cubits RM deep ( with water in it after heavy rains have rushed down the entrance passage), and with a very irregular and wide opening, makes measurement about here somewhat unpleasant."
(S5orig-[S37]-P60-L19-38) –
edited.


From all the above data it should be possible to reconstruct some parts of the underground chamber, but for other parts I have to measure the lengths of a drawing published by Edgar. I am not proud of this method, but it is the only chance I have to get all the data. On the other hand, there is so much gravel in the chamber and the interior parts are so irregular that it makes sense to compromise on the overall accuracy of this work.  The drawing I used for this purpose is:

 

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910 Page 36 part of Plate X


Section 5.3.11





Section 5.3.17

Top view of the Entrance, the descending passageway, the horizontal passageway and the recess (or antechamber):


Section 5.3.18

Closer look on the end of the descending passageway, the horizontal passageway and recess (or antechamber) :



Top view Descending passageway and antechamber uden ml - closer lookJPG


Section 5.3.19

Underneath an overview drawing with measures and explanations, (all lengths are in cubits RM) :

Top view Descending passageway and antechamber med ml - langt fraJPG


Section 5.3.20

And a closer look on the recess (or antechamber) with measures , (all lengths are in cubits RM) :

Top view Descending passageway and antechamber med ml - closer look on RecessJPG


Section 5.3.21

Same view, but with coordinates , (all lengths are in cubits RM) :
Top view Descending passageway and antechamber med ml og koordinater - closer look on RecessJPG


Section 5.3.22

Here is a new top view inclusive the Subterranean Chamber, I have to admit my drawing is not exact to the reality, but it is very close. Please compare with the pictures in the beginning of this section. 

Set ovenfra Subchamber Closer look uden ml med explanationsJPG


Section 5.3.23

And closer to the chamber :

Top view Descending passageway and antechamber uden ml - closest lookJPG


Section 5.3.24

The same view with measures , (all lengths are in cubits RM) :

Set ovenfra Subchamber Closer look med mlJPG


Section 5.3.25

And closer , (all lengths are in cubits RM) :

Set ovenfra Subchamber Closest look med mlJPG


Section 5.3.26

Outer and left side coordinates , (all lengths are in cubits RM) :

5326 set ovenfraPNG


Section 5.3.27

Inner coordinates, (all lengths are in cubits RM) :

Set ovenfra Subchamber Closest look med koordinaterJPG


Section 5.3.28

Top view of most of the underground passageway system:
5328 set ovenfra REV1PNG

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