Grand Gallery

Section 5.5.1 

The 10th of January 1988 when I and my wife came out from the ascending passageway and could straighten ourselves up, we saw the amazing Grand Gallery. 

A breathtaking view I will never forget. 

For this experience I owe King Khufu, his genius architects, his administrative and logistic staff  and also all his specialized workers many thanks for this fantastic result. The Grand Gallery looked like the path to heaven - (maybe this was exactly the intention).



Here is a picture taken by Edgar in 1910 from the floor, the lowest part, of the Grand Gallery, looking South. Behind the helper you can see the passageway into the "Queens chamber".
You can hardly see the end of the Grand Gallery, it is ascending into the darkness like the sky in the night.

552 Grand Gallery gulv III DSC09475jpg

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.5.3

Flinders Petrie had these valuable comments to the angle and position of the Grand Gallery floor:
"For the angle of the passage, and its straightness, it will be well to consider it all in one with the gallery floor, as they were gauged together all in one length."
(S5orig-[S39]-P64-L27-29)

"This , when corrected for lower signal being .3 too high, gives 26° 12´ 50" for mean angle of both passage and gallery together."
(S5orig-[S39]-P65-L2-4)

"Hence the floor of the gallery intersects the S. wall at 1689.0 +/- .5 above the pavement; at 61.7 +/- .8 S. of the Pyramid centre;  "
(S5orig-[S45]-P72-L18-19)

Please observe the lengths informed by Flinders Petrie are always in British inches.
1689 inches = 81,91 cubits.
61,7 inches  = 3 cubits

From this we can calculate the coordinate where the floor of the Grand Gallery intersects the Southern wall, which of course is an imaginary point due to the top stone above the ramp.
For a better understanding please see my drawing below, the coordinate we are looking for is in the end of the dotted line:
 553 Grand Gallery floor overview closerPNG

The coordinate is: (4400/2-30, 2800-819 ) = (2170,1981)
Now we have the direction and the point where the imaginary floor line meets the South of the Grand Gallery.

Section 5.5.4

Let us start where we came into the Grand Gallery from the ascending passageway.  The old picture below is showing the end of the ascending passageway where it continues a bit into the Grand Gallery. On the right side you can see the lowest part of the eastern ramp-bench.


554 Plate CXLVIXPNG

Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910

It seems there had been a mechanical abrasion in the middle part of the floor of the end of the ascending passageway. Please observe the picture was taken before 1910, which is before the massive entry of tourists as we see nowadays. There is a similar abrasion in the top stone in the high end of the Grand Gallery. Please see section 5.5.9

I assume the abrasions were caused during the building of the pyramid.



Section 5.5.5

If we turn around, then the left (eastern) side and the right (western) side at the floor of the Grand Gallery differs from each other. The workers removed a couple of stones on the western side of the ramp-bench near the northern wall to make a passage downwards to the descending passageway. The mouth of this passageway is shown here by some drawings and a photo by Mr. Edgar. 
555 Plate CXLVIIPNG
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Underneath is a drawing which shows the well from another angle.

555 Plate CXLVPNG
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910

The old photo underneath shows the same.  There is still a part of the original stone in the western corner of the Grand Gallery.
555 Plate CXLVIPNG
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.5.6

Let us have a closer look on the well showing the western wall and ramp-bench in the Grand Gallery to the left and the end of the ascending passageway to the right:

556 REV1 Entrance and ascending passage and Grand Gallery detail start - west view med blank closerPNG

(I have made a full line to show the supposed original intention of the corner where the upper part of the ramp-bench hit the Northern wall. Above picture in the previous section 5.5.5,  you can see the corner is broken.)

Flinders Petrie measured the position of the well from the Northern wall:
"As, however, the position of its mouth has been supposed to have a meaning, it should be stated that the opening is from 21,8 to 49,0 horizontally from N. wall of gallery on floor."
 (S5orig-[S46]-P74-L26-28)

My comments:
21,8" = 1,06 cubits RM
49,0" = 2,38 cubits RM

Flinders Petrie measured also the offset on the eastern ramp to the floor from the North wall to the the position of the well from the North wall to the ramp end in the South:
"20,9"
 (S5orig-[S45]-P71-L24)

My comments:
20,9" = 1,0 cubit RM
Please observe that the offsets on the western and eastern ramp-benches varies from 20,7" (1,00 cubit) to 21,5" (1,04 cubits) and from 20,3" (0,98 cubits) to 21,6" (1,05 cubits), respectively. 

On this point of the western ramp-bench the vertical height is :
1 / cos 26,2139° = 1,1 cubits

The mouth of the well in North South direction is then 2,38 cubits RM  - 1,06 cubits RM = 1,32 cubits.


With measures in cubits:

556 REV1  Entrance and ascending passage and Grand Gallery detail start - west view med ml closerPNG

And coordinates:

556 REV1 Entrance and ascending passage and Grand Gallery detail start - west view med coordinates closerpng

Section 5.5.7

Calculations for the coordinates:

557 calcPNG

Special remarks:
Flinders Petrie has a measure from ground zero to the floor level 52" = 2,52 cubits from the door opening which is 858,4" = 41,6295 cubits, which corresponds to 416pixels.
In the calculation no. 5 I refer to this. My ground zero has the value 2800 minus 416 = 2384
The point of the mentioned measure is (2990 - 25, 2384) = 2965,2384
557 tablePNG
Source:  (S5orig-[S40]-P66-L4)


*In calculation no. 6 I have added 10 pixels = 1 cubit to find the coordinate. Please see the Plate XIII underneath made by Edgar. I have marked the height yellow.
This value of the height in the well is assumed, I cannot verify it in any sources. I have tried to compare drawings and photos, but in vain - so far.

557 Plate XIIIPNG
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910


Section 5.5.8

Internal notes for me only:
The drawings in section 5.5.6 are "close view" versions with another solution. Therefore the calculations and coordinates differs from the overview drawing.
The solution is 446 pixels per 2.6 cubits, which is 171.5 pixels per cubit.
558 coordinate close viewPNG
 


Section 5.5.9

Let us take a detailed look into the Southern part of the Grand Gallery. As mentioned in section 5.5.3 we have the direction and the point where the imaginary floor line meets the South of the Grand Gallery which is (2170,1981).

First an overall view:

559 Grand Gallery overall without measues and coordinatesPNG

The complete length of the Grand Gallery:

559 Grand Gallery overview whole length without measues and coordinatesPNG

And closer to the top stone:

559 Grand Gallery top stone without measues and coordinatesPNG

Flinders Petrie:
"At the upper end of the gallery, we have already stated the S. wall to be 61,7 +/- ,8 S. of the Pyramid centre; and hence the face of the great step at the head of the gallery (which descends behind both floor and ramps) is (61,7 - 61,3) = ,4 +/- ,8 S. of the Pyramid centre."
Source: (S5orig-[S46]-P74-L33-36)

My comments:
The mentioned measures above are as usual i inches.
61,7" = 2,99 cubits
61,3" = 2,97 cubits
0,4"    = 0,02 cubits
My drawings is limited to an accuracy of 1 decimal in cubits, so the width is rounded up to 3 cubits RM. 
The 0,02 cubits should not be shown in my drawing as the measure is below the 1 pixel, but in this case I have chosen to show it on the drawing even 1 pixel is equal to 0,1 cubits, which is 5 times bigger than the real value. This decision does not have an impact on the position of the South wall.

Flinders Petrie:
"And the sloping floor seems to be also out of level by an equal amount in the opposite direction; since on the half width of the step (i.e. between the ramps) the height of the step face is 34,92 or 35,0 on E., and 35,80 or 35,85 on W."
Source: (S5orig-[S46]-P75-L9-11)

My comments: 
On East side:
34,92" = 1,69 cubits
35,0"   = 1,70 cubits
On West side:
35,80" = 1,74 cubits
35,85" = 1,74 cubits
It is clear the top stone or "step" is not perfectly horizontally. In my drawings it does not really matter as the accuracy is limited to +/- 0,1 cubits. The result is therefore the same on both sides : 1,7 cubits RM (which is 17 pixels).

We know from section 5.5.6 that the vertical height of the ramp is 1,1 cubits. 
The vertical height from the ramp to the edge of the top stone is therefore 1,7 cubits - 1,1 cubits = 0,6 cubits.

Flinders Petrie:
"Then the top of the step will (by above measures) be here 34,88 above actual floor end, and the step dips about ,64 to the S.wall at this part; so the top of the step at the S. wall is 34,88 + ,64 -30,08 = 4,16 (say+/-,2) above the virtual floor end at the line of taping."
Source: (S5orig-[S46]-P75-L18-21)

My comments:
34,88" = 1,69 cubits
0,64"    = 0,03 cubits
30,08" = 1,46 cubits
4,16"    = 0,2 cubits

With measures all in cubits:

559 REV1 Grand Gallery top stone with measures and without coordinatespng

It is impressive how close the Northern edge of the top stone is on the Apex - the middle of the pyramid. The distance is 0,02 cubits RM is equal to 1 cm !
I assume it was the intention to place the edge of the top stone in the middle of the pyramid. The idea might have been to mark a point between the ascending structure and the entrance of the passageway to the antechamber and the "Kings" chamber, which hereafter is horizontal.  

With coordinates:

559 Grand Gallery top stone without measures and with coordinates and with textPNG

From section 5.5.3 we calculated the coordinate where the floor of the Grand Gallery intersects the Southern wall is (2170,1981).
The top stone intersects with the southern wall at (2170,1981-2) = (2170,1979).
The North-South length of the top stone is 3 cubits. the northern edge is therefore (2170 + 30,1979) = (2200,1979) which is shown in the drawing as (2201,1979) to mark the small difference from Apex.
The height from the edge of the top stone to the ramp-bench is 0,6 cubits, the ramp intersects to the top stone at (2201,1979 + 6) = (2201,1985).
The vertical height of the ramp is 1,1 cubits, the floor of the ramp  intersects to the top stone at (2201,1985 + 11) = (2201,1996).


Edgar took a photo of the top stone, which gives you a better idea how it looks like. It was taken against the South - West corner of the Grand Gallery:

559 Topstone i Grand Gallery plate CVXIPNG
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910

Nowadays the top stone has been "repaired", maybe to avoid any accidents when tourists move around on the stone.
It is more or less the same kind of a mechanical abrasion in the middle part of the top stone. In 1910 it could still be seen. If you examine the picture carefully you can see a trace in the middle of the eroded part of the top stone. It looks like a rope has been running there. If this is so, then the top stone somehow has been a part of the building process of the pyramid.

Lowest in the picture you can see the ascending floor of the Grand Gallery and on both sides there are ramp-benches leading up the top stone. On the Western side a piece of the ramp-bench has been broken off. 

In the background you can see the entrance to the small passageway to the antechamber and hereafter the "Kings" chamber.


Section 5.5.10

Let us have a closer look on the old picture.

5510 Topstone i Grand Gallery plate CVXI closerPNG
Source: The Great Pyramid Passages And Chambers" Volume 1 by John and Morton Edgar, 1910

1. It is not possible to say whether the missing part of the top stone is due to an abrasion or made for a purpose. If you ignore the angle from which the photo is taken, then it seems the stone has a smooth surface  in the rounded part from the vertical center of both the ramp-benches . There is a possibility the shape has been made by the workers for a purpose.
2. If you examine the line under "2", then it starts from the very top of the top stone and ends at the bottom of the rounded part. 
3. Where the line "2" ends you see a clear round abrasion, which could have been made by a running rope.  Under the rounded abrasion is a vertical abrasion, which could have been caused by a rough rope or by water to cool down the rope caused by the friction against the stone.
4. Just above the "4" point there is a line that could have been caused by a stone which the workers dragged up and hit the top stone hard because of an accident.

If any of my readers have another explanation, please let me know.

I have tried to make a drawing by hand from the North side:

5510 Top stone drawingjpg


Section 5.5.11

Let us focus on the top surfaces of the ramp-benches. On the picture in section 5.5.2 you can see rectangular holes cut down in the ramp-benches close to the walls. You can also see niches behind the holes cut into the walls.

Unfortunately Flinders Petrie did not register the number of holes, but he had following remarks:
"One remarkable point is that the holes are alternately long and short, on both sides of the gallery; the mean of the long holes is 23´32, with an average variation of ´73, and the mean of the short holes is 20´51, with average variation of ´40. Thus the horizontal length of a long hole is equal to the sloping length of a short hole, both being one cubit. This relation is true within less than half their average variations."
Source: (S5orig-[S46]-P72-L27-32)

My remarks:
As the sloping lengths for each hole and the spaces between them are not mentioned I must disregard from the average variations. Furthermore, it seems the variations are relatively small which confirms my decision.
Long hole: 23´32 inches = 1,13 cubits RM;   ´73 inches = 0,04 cubits 
Short hole: 20´51 inches = 1,0 cubit RM;      ´40 inches = 0,02 cubits

Another important measure Flinders Petrie mentioned:
"Ramp End ... 1815´5 Distance on Slope"
Source: (S5orig-[S45]-P71-L39)

My remarks:
1815,5" = 88,0456 cubits RM, which in my drawings I round down to 88 cubits.

Charles Rigano wrote following remarks:
"At the top of each platform 25 niches are cut into each wall (total 50) most of which have an angled trapezoidal feature chiseled across its face. There are 27 rectangular holes cut downwards into each side platform (total 54). The rectangular holes are next to the walls and generally centered on the niches cut into the side walls; the two rectangular holes against the north (lower) face of the Gallery do not have companion side niches.
All of the 50 side niches and trapezoidal features are completely filled with blocks and mortar of the type used elsewhere in the pyramid with the exception of the 7th and 11th side niches from the bottom on the west side, the first of which is empty and the second has a hole cut into the mortar. Because the depth of only two side niches is known, we cannot determine if opposing side niches were of different depths to facilitate insertion of a beam as is the case with the holes at the entrance to the Upper Horizontal Passage".
Source: (S11-P51-L16-26)

On the same page he wrote in a table :
"Depth (Into Platform)    7,0" - 11.5"  
Width (From Gallery Wall)  5,5" - 6,5"
Source: (S11-P51-L10 in the table)

On page 50 Charles Rigano mentioned following measures in the table:
"Width - Bottom Including Side Platforms  6´  10" (4 cubits)
Width - Between Side Platforms  3´  5"  (2 cubits)
Side Platforms   20,5" Wide  20,5" High (1 cubit square)"
Source: (S11-P50-L7 in the table)

My remarks:
7" = 0,34 cubits RM and 11,5" = 0,56 cubits RM. (depths)
5,5" = 0,27 cubits RM and 6,5" = 0,32 cubits RM. (widths)

Luca Miatello inform following in source 15:
"The holes are 14 cm wide, 18 cm deep, and their mean length alternates regularly between 52,1 cm (one cubit) and 59,2 cm (Petrie, 1883:72)."

My remarks about the holes in the ramp-benches:
14 cm = 0,27 cubits RM = 0,53 foots. (wide)
18 cm = 0,34 cubits RM = 0,49 remens. (depth)
52,1 cm = 1 cubit RM = 7 hands. (short length)
59,2 cm = 1,13 cubits RM = 8 hands. (long length)

There are 27 holes on each ramp-bench.
If you see the picture in section 5.5.9 it is obvious there is no hole adjacent to the top stone.
In section 5.5.5 you can see the picture showing where the ascending passageway end in the Grand Gallery. In the corner you can see the first hole. Taking in consideration that the hole is shorter than the horizontal length of the end of the floor of the ascending passageway, which is 1,06 cubits, I conclude the first hole is the short one of 1,0 cubit RM.



Section 5.5.12

The spaces between the holes are not measured, so I have to assume the sloping lengths of the spaces are the same.
As the ramps start with a short hole of a sloping length of 1 cubit RM and alternates with the long holes of the sloping length of 1,13 cubits RM and there are 27 holes in each ramp-bench and the series of holes and spaces end with a space and the total sloping length of each ramp-bench is 88,0456 cubits RM, we can calculate the sloping length of each space.
In fact we can see it as 13 sequences consisting of a short hole + a space + a long hole + space and in the end there is one short hole and a space before the top stone.
 
5512 calcPNG

The pixels are as usual for internal use only and are processed to calculate the coordinates and the drawings (10 pixels = 1 cubit).
The horizontal axis is calculated as the sloping length x COS 26,2139°.
The vertical axis is calculated as the sloping length x SIN 26,2139°.   



Section 5.5.13

The bottom of the holes have the same slope as the ramp-benches and the inner sides of the holes are perpendicular to the bottoms, see the drawings underneath.

It took some weeks before I realized the sides of the holes were not vertical, but perpendicular to the surface of the bench-ramp. This little misunderstanding cost me a lot of efforts to correct the calculations underneath. The incident also showed me with a cruel clarity how the small grey cells may mislead me. Afterwards I understood the holes may have been made before the stones were mounted in the Grand Gallery. 

There are two different sloping lengths L of the holes on these ramps: 1 cubits RM and 1,13 cubits RM.
Please see my drawing below with a horizontal line:


5513 Real hole in GG rev1JPG

Please see the drawing below of Mark Lehner showing an example of a hole (3) (here called notch) in the ramp (1), the niche (4) and the trapezoidal cutting (5) in the wall (2)  parallel to the ramp: 
5513 tegning af hul i rampe MarkPNG
Source S15,  "Niches, Slots, Grooves and Stains: Internal Framework in the Khufu Pyramid?" of Mark Lehner published in https://www.academia.edu/36645718/Niches_Slots_Grooves_and_Stains_Internal_Frameworks_in_the_Khufu_Pyramid 

Please see my detail drawing of the holes  of the Grand Gallery. It shows the holes in the eastern ramp-bench, the western ramp-bench is similar except the escape passageway near the northern entrance. Please see the coordinates underneath in section 5.5.14
s = Short hole
l = Long hole

Eastern ramp-bench:
5513 drawing of holes Eastern side ramp benchJPG


Western ramp-bench:
5513 rev 2 Western side Grand Gallery overview whole length without measues and coordinates with holes HIGH solutionpng

The corner at the Northern wall has been broken, please see the pictures in section 5.5.5, it is not possible to draw this section correctly. However in section 5.5.6. I have made a detail drawing to show the supposed original intention of the corner.

Section 5.5.14

As mentioned in section 5.5.11 the holes in the ramp-benches have these dimensions :
14 cm = 0,27 cubits RM = 0,53 foots. (wide)
18 cm = 0,34 cubits RM = 0,49 remens. (depth)
52,1 cm = 1 cubit RM = 7 hands. (short length)
59,2 cm = 1,13 cubits RM = 8 hands. (long length)

And according to section 5.5.12 the spaces between the holes are 2.198 cubits each.

As the holes alternate as short and long, all the holes have following lengths and coordinates on both ramp-benches (the western ramp-bench does not have the first hole "1s" at the Northern wall due to the escape passageway or well.):

According to section 5.5.6 the ramp-benches start at 2990,2375 and end at 2201,1985 according to section 5.5.9
(Please observe due to rounding the end point in the table is calculated to 2200,1986 which divert from the real coordinate. Please also observe 2200 equal to 220 cubits is the Apex, the center of the pyramid.) 

5514 Oversigt over coordinater West and East REV 3JPG

Calculations:
Sloping lengths at 26.2139° , cubits : The sloping lengths of the short and long holes are measured, the sloping length of the Spaces of 2.198 cubits is calculated in section 5.5.12
The total of cubits is a simple addition ends with 88.038 cubits.
The pixels used for the drawing in section 5.5.13 is calculated as cubits x 10

Lengths, cubits, X axis for the short hole: 1.0 cubit RM x cos 26.2139° = 0.8972 cubits (= 0.9 cubits rounded).
Lengths, cubits, Y axis for the short hole: 1.0 cubit RM x sin 26.2139° = 0.4417 cubits (= 0.4 cubits rounded).
Lengths, pixels, X axis for the short hole: 0.9 cubits x 10 = 9 pixels.
Lengths, pixels, Y axis for the short hole: 0.4 cubits x 10 = 4 pixels.

Lengths, cubits, X axis for the Space: 2.198 x cos 26.2139° = 1.9719 cubits (= 2.0 cubits rounded).
Lengths, cubits, Y axis for the Space : 2.198 x sin 26.2139° = 0.9709 cubits (= 1.0 cubits rounded).
Lengths, pixels, X axis for the Space : 2.0 cubits x 10 = 20 pixels.
Lengths, pixels, Y axis for the Space : 1.0 cubits x 10 = 10 pixels.

Lengths, cubits, X axis for the long hole: 1.13 cubit RM x cos 26.2139° = 1.013 cubits (= 1.0 cubits rounded).
Lengths, cubits, Y axis for the long hole: 1.13 cubit RM x sin 26.2139° = 0.4991 cubits (= 0.5 cubits rounded).
Lengths, pixels, X axis for the short hole: 1.0 cubits x 10 = 10 pixels.
Lengths, pixels, Y axis for the short hole: 0.5 cubits x 10 = 5 pixels.

Coordinate 2990,2375 is the start point at the Northern wall where the ramp-benches hit.
The upper Northern point of the first hole (on Eastern ramp-bench) is therefore 2990,2375.
All upper coordinates of the holes and Spaces are calculated this way:
For example is the Northern upper coordinate of the first hole "1 short": 2990, 2375 
The Southern upper coordinate of the first hole "1 short": (2990-9, 2375+4) = 2981,2371  , (the 9 and 4  are mentioned above).
The  Northern upper coordinate of the first Space starts at 2981,2371 and Southern upper coordinate is (2981-20, 2371+10) = 2961,2361
The next holes and Spaces are calculated in the same way.

The depths of the holes are measured to be 0.34 cubits RM.
The lower coordinates of the holes and Spaces are calculated from the upper set of coordinates.
Depth, X-axis: 0.34 cubits RM x sin 26.2139° = 0.1502 cubits (=0.2 cubits rounded).
Pixels, X-axes: 10 x 0,2 = 2 pixels.
Depth, X-axis: 0.34 cubits RM x cos 26.2139° = 0.3050 cubits (=0.3 cubits rounded).
Pixels, X-axes: 10 x 0,3 = 3 pixels.
For example is the Northern lower coordinate of the first hole "1 short": (2990-2, 2375+3) = 2988,2378  , (the 2 and 3 are mentioned above).
The Southern lower coordinate of the first hole "1 short": (2981-2, 2371+3) = 2979,2374 , (the 2 and 3 are mentioned above).
The other holes are calculated the same way.


Section 5.5.14

Top view of the ramp-benches.

Flinders Petrie noted:
"By plumb-line measure at the S. end, the roof on the E. side is inside the floor edge (or overhangs) 20.50, and on the W. side 20.40. On the S. end (eliminating the lean) the projections is 20.9, and on N. 20.4; mean of all, 20.55, for the sum of the seven projections of the laps, or one cubit, the laps being then one palm each in breadth. Thus the laps overhang the ramps along the gallery sides, and the space between the ramps (2 cubits), is equal to the space between the walls at the top."
Source: (S5orig-[S46]-P74-L15-21)

My notes:
Maybe it was easier just to measure the breadth of the ramp-benches. Anyway the note of Flinders Petrie gives us more information.
20.50" = 0,9942 cubits or 1 cubit NM.
20.40" = 0,9893  cubits or 1 cubit NM.
20.9"   = 1,0136  cubits or 1 cubit NM.
20.55" = 0,9966  cubits or 1 cubit NM.

With other words the breadth of the two ramp-benches is 1 cubit NM each and the space between the ramp-benches is 2 cubits RM, which is the same space between the walls in the ascending passageway. Please see the picture in section 5.5.4. The Western wall of the ascending passageway is aligned to the side of the ramp-bench. As the spaces between the walls are the same (2 cubits RM), then the Eastern wall is also aligned to the other ramp-bench.

According to the top view in section 5.4.15 the end coordinates in the East - West direction are 2041,2990 and 2061,2990 respectively.
As the breadth of the ramp-benches is 1 cubit NM each, then the Northern corners of the Eastern ramp-bench hits the Northern wall at the coordinates (2041-10,2990) = 2031,2990 and 2061,2990 respectively.
The Northern corners of the Western ramp-bench hits the Northern wall at the coordinates 2061,2990 and (2061+10,2990) = 2071,2990 respectively.

A similar calculation can be made where the ramp-benches hit the top stone at South.
The Eastern ramp-bench hits the top stone at 2031,2201 (at East) and 2041,2201 (at West).
The Western ramp-bench hits the top stone at 2061,2201 (at East) and 2071,2201 (at West).

Drawing for internal use only. (The Well or Pit is shown with coordinates):  

5514 Top view november 2019JPG


Section 5.5.15

The coordinates for the holes and spaces in the Eastern ramp-bench:

5515 Eastern ramp bench coordinatesJPG



Section 5.5.16

The coordinates for the holes and spaces in the Western ramp-bench:

5516 Western ramp bench coordinatesJPG